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Dissertation Vs Thesis Pdf Volume

Complete Your Collection

Dissertations and theses complete your library collection by surfacing original research that can often be the only source of information on a given topic.

Simplify Searching with a Single Unified Access Point for Dissertations and Theses

Comprehensive historic and ongoing coverage from universities ensures effective, efficient results.

Significant and Growing International Coverage

Content partners for PQDT Global include University College London, London School of Economics and Political Science, University of Cardiff, University of Leicester, University of Aberdeen, University of Bath and University of Valencia.

Offer Critical Support for Arts, Humanities, and Social Sciences

In disciplines where journals are not the primary form of scholarly communication, dissertations offer access to significant primary research that is not published in any other format and they surface seminal ideas from notable scholars.

Enhance Research in the Sciences

Dissertations provide additional context for research published in journals or conference proceedings while surfacing hard to find information such as negative results.

Add a New Dimension to Literature Reviews

Dissertations are an important and valuable tool for literature reviews, with deep coverage and extensive bibliographies that surface sources and ideas that would otherwise be missed.

Expose Research in Depth

Audio, video, data, survey instruments, and other types of digital files are included for thousands of works.

Reduce Library ILL Costs

Reduce resources and costs to gain access to dissertations and theses.



All copies shall be legible and of good print quality.

Production of text

Text may be produced (i) single sided on the front of pages; (ii) mostly single sided, but occasionally printed on the back (e.g. to allow a diagram to face related text); or (iii) on both sides of the paper, providing the paper is opaque enough to avoid show-through.

Typographic design

Text should be set with even or proportionate spacing between words. Word division at the ends of lines should be avoided, if possible.

It is recommended that one-and-a-half line spacing or equivalent is used. Lines that contain mathematical formulae, diacritical marks or strings of capital letters may need additional space. It should be clear when a new paragraph is starting and where matter in the text is being quoted.

Text, in general, should be black and should not be embellished i.e. no general use of coloured text or fancy fonts; no section separators, etc.


It is recommended that, in order to allow for binding, reading, and reproduction, the margin on the binding edge of the page, i.e. the left-hand edge of the front and the right-hand edge of the back of a page, is not less than 40mm, and that other margins are not less than 15mm. The character size and line length should also be taken into account when deciding margin width. Any running heads and page numbers should be within the recommended margins at the top and bottom of the page, and preferably no nearer the edge of the paper than half the margin width. It is recommended that margins around all illustrations and off-prints are no smaller than those of the text, if they are bound into the thesis.

Page Headers

Page headers may be used but, for ease of reading, it is recommended that the font used is smaller than the main body of the text and that no underline is used. Headers should not include personal information, such as your name or student number.


Headings should be used to indicate the hierarchical structure of the text. There should normally be not more than four levels, including the chapter headings as the first level. It is recommended that each level is distinguished from the others by position or typography, or both, and that the space that precedes and follows a heading is not less than the space between paragraphs. Headings should not normally be centred (except, possibly, for chapter and part headings).


Arabic numerals should normally be used for numbering all sequences within a thesis.

For ease of reading, it is recommended that page numbers are visibly clear of the text. The pages of the thesis should be numbered in a single sequence beginning with the title page, which should be counted but not numbered, and including pages that carry tables, illustrations, appendices, etc. The use of blank pages should be avoided, if possible. 

Chapters should be numbered from the start to the finish of the thesis, continuing across volumes if necessary. Appendices should be numbered in a separate sequence from that used for chapters.

Illustrations should be numbered consecutively in a single sequence, generally without distinguishing between different kinds of illustration. Tables or Figures within the text should be numbered consecutively in a single sequence, each separate from illustrations.

The components of material that cannot be bound, e.g. frames of a film, should be numbered in a manner appropriate to their form, e.g. 'microfiche frame D7'.


An illustration should normally appear near the first reference made to it in the text. The desirability of grouping illustrations at the back of a volume or in a separate volume should be considered if they need to be compared with one another, are referred to frequently in the text, or need to be separate because of their nature, e.g. their size or method of production.

Illustrations should be of a technical quality that reproduces well.

Every illustration, including appendices and material that cannot be bound, should be included in the list of illustrations with page numbers or other identification.

It is recommended that any label within an illustration is positioned so that the part it applies to cannot be confused with any other, or linked to the part by a thin line; the lettering should be large and clear enough to remain legible when the illustration is photographed and subsequently copied. A short legend should appear beneath each illustration.

Photographic prints; large illustrations

It is recommended that photographic prints, if bound with the text, are printed on medium-weight photographic paper (e.g. paper of a thickness equivalent to that of uncoated paper of substance within the range 70 g/m2 to 100 g/m2) or permanently mounted on A4-size card or substantial paper.

If it is necessary to bind in an illustration on a paper size larger than A4, it should be produced on paper that can be folded to fit within the thesis; illustrations should not be pasted across both pages of an open volume.

Bibliographical references

A bibliographical reference should be given for every work, published or unpublished, cited in the text. Please refer to the Academic Integrity guidelines issued by your department for referencing guidance and expectations.

The bibliography, if present, should list all sources referred to or consulted in writing the thesis, but not necessarily all material relevant to it. A consistent form of presentation should be used for all bibliographical references throughout the thesis.



In all cases, the thesis should be bound in such a way that it can be opened fully, for ease of reading, and the thickness of a single volume (excluding covers) should not be more than 70mm.

Softbound theses

The thesis should be securely bound either between card covers (the front cover to be a copy of the title page) or between clear plastic covers. The spine should be taped, and not spiral bound.

Hardbound theses

The thesis should be bound in cloth covered boards, the binding being of a fixed kind in which leaves are permanently secured.

Lettering on the cover and spine of the thesis should be large enough to be legible when the volume is on a library shelf. Normally, lettering of 8mm capital height will be required if the lettering is all in capitals and 10mm capital height if capitals and lower case are used.

The front cover should bear the title of the thesis (in an abbreviated form, if necessary), the author's name, the name of qualification for which the thesis is submitted (e.g., PhD, or MA), and the year of submission.

The spine of the thesis should bear the author's name, the name of qualification for which the thesis is submitted (e.g., PhD, or MA), the name of the department or programme and the year of submission. This information should be printed along the spine in such a way as to be readable when the volume is lying flat with the front cover uppermost.

If the thesis consists of more than one volume the front cover and the spine must also bear the number of each volume.

Material that cannot be bound

Material that cannot be bound

It may be that the thesis includes material that cannot conveniently be bound near the related text in it, e.g. cassettes, slides, large maps or architectural drawings, large music scores, microform, computer discs or computer printout.

Unbound material causes difficulties in binding and reproduction and is at risk of being lost. Its use should therefore be avoided, if at all possible. If, however, its use is inescapable, it should either: be packaged in such a way that it can be bound with the thesis, e.g. stored in a pocket attached to the inside back cover of the appropriate volume; or be gathered into another volume and stored in a rigid container of the same size and colour as that of the bound thesis. If the material which cannot conveniently be submitted in bound form constitutes the whole of the thesis, it should be packaged in a rigid container. In every case, the rigid container shall either bear on its front cover the information required for a title page (if softbound) or be constructed of cloth covered boards and lettered on the cover and spine (if hardbound), in accordance with the requirements guidance on the presentation and submission of theses for research degree programmes.

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